Anthus trivialis - autumn

Tree Pipit / Trädpiplärka

AGE - BEST CRITERIA:

In 1cy, a moult contrast is present in the wing. In most birds the contrast is situated within the LC and/or between post-juvenile LC and juvenile MC. A few birds may also show a moult contrast in MC, inner GC, tertials or RR. Adult birds show a uniform and freshly moulted plumage.
 
1cy: 
  • A moult contrast is often seen within the LC. Most commonly, single or several (or all) feathers in the lower row of LC are still juvenile, often easily detected due to a paler brown centre and worn pale buffish tips, in contrast to surrounding fresh olive tipped post-juvenile LC. However, it is important to note that also fresh, moulted, post-juvenile LC in the lower row are often rather pale tipped too, and it is vital to take the wear of the feather into consideration. If all LC are moulted, the contrast may be found towards the MC. 
  • Most birds do not include any MC in the moult. But some do and, hence, a contrast may be present also here. Post-juvenile MC are fresh with glossy dark (blackish) centre and with wide and well kept yellowish-buff tips. In contrast, the juvenile MC are slightly worn with a somewhat paler blackish-brown centre and more worn pale-buffish tips. There is also a slight and average difference in the shape of the blackish centre: In juvenile MC it often shows a rather triangular shape, while many post-juvenile MC has a more square-shaped dark centre with a narrow "spike" towards the feather tip. (but many birds are rather intermediate). Rarely, all MC may be moulted.
  • Juvenile GC show a slightly paler (brownish) centre and a paler buffish (straw coloured) and more worn pale tip and outer edge, compared to post-juvenile ones that are fresh with a glossy blackish centre and slightly darker buff tips and edges. Further, the post-juvenile GC are generally broader and often show a more square-shaped feather tip than juvenile ones. 
  • Juvenile PC are often slightly less dense and more loose/frayed than in adult, but difference is not always obvious. Further, juvenile PC are often slightly paler browish-grey and show less neat green edges than adult ones.
  • Juvenile RR are generally slightly more worn, narrow and more pointed than adult ones, but difficult birds are sometimes seen. The structure is often helpful, with the juvenile feathers being slightly less dense, less glossy and somewhat paler brownish.
  • Juvenile tertials are generally slightly narrower, less dense, less glossy and slightly more worn compared to post-juvenile (or post-breeding) ones. A few birds include a single tertial (very rarely all three) and then show a moult contrast.
  • The colour of the iris is supportive. In 1cy it is rather cold olive-grey.

2cy+:
  • Whole plumage fresh, dense and lacks moult contrasts. Note, however, that the inner three GC in some birds show a slightly differing pattern (with somewhat darker tips and edges) creating a 'false contrast'.
  • Post-breeding MC are fresh with glossy dark (blackish) centre and with wide and well kept yellowish-buff tips. In many (but not all) birds the MC has a rather square-shaped dark centre with a narrow "spike" towards the feather tip.
  • Adult post-breeding GC are fresh with a glossy blackish centre and slightly darker buff tips and edges than in juveniles. Further, the GC are generally broader and often show a more square-shaped feather tip. 
  • Adult PC are generally more dense, show a slightly darker centre (with some gloss) and more neat green edges than juvenile.
  • RR are generally slightly broader, more blunt tipped and often in better condition.
  • Post-breeding tertials are generally slightly broader, more dense, more glossy and fresher compared to juvenile ones.
  • Colour of iris is warmer brownish than in 1cy.
1cy September. A dominantly juvenile wing, but note that most LC are post-juvenile (fresh and olive), contrasting to the lower row of LC that are slightly more worn and show pale buff tips. Note also that GC9 is moulted post-juvenile (fresh, with darker centre and darker buff tip and edge), contrasting to juvenile GC on both sides. The dark centre to the juvenile MC are rather triangular at the tip (compare to the 2cy+ to the right below). [1ET28961]
1cy September. Another, rather typical 1cy bird, similar to the one to the left. Note here that the lower row of LC contain both juvenile (most feathers) and post-juvenile (left part) feathers. In this bird, all MC and GC are juvenile. [1ET28704]
2cy+ September. A rather typical fresh adult wing showing uniform, dense and rather broad and square-shaped GC. Note the darker (and more glossy) centra and the slightly darker yellowish-buff tips and edges to both MC and GC. In this bird, the shape of the MC centra is not very different from juvenile feathers. [1ET28684]
2cy+ August. Another adult showing some variation. Note the shape of the dark MC centra: rather square-shaped with a narrow 'spike' at the tip. Note also that GC8-10 show a slightly different (darker) pattern than GC1-7. This 'false contrast' is sometimes more eye-cathing than here, but should not be mistaken for a moult contrast once the feather wear is examined. [1ET80003]
1cy September. Juvenile PC are often slightly less dense and more loose/frayed than in adult, but difference is not always obvious. Further, juvenile PC are often slightly paler browish-grey and show less neat green edges than adult ones. [1ET28974]
1cy September, showing variation. [1ET28962]
2cy+ September. Adult PC are generally more dense, show a slightly darker centre (with some gloss) and more neat green edges than juvenile ones. [1ET28684]
2cy+ August, showing variation. [1ET80003]
1cy September. Juvenile RR are generally slightly more narrow and more pointed than in adult, but there is a variation in shape and difficult birds are sometimes seen. The structure is often helpful: less dense, less glossy and somewhat paler brownish than fresh adult post-breeding feathers. Most birds include no RR in the post-juvenile moult but, rarely, single feathers (R1) may be included. [1ET28964]
1cy August, showing variation of the juvenile RR. [1ES24912]
2cy+ August. Adult RR are generally slightly broader, more blunt tipped and often in better condition. [1ET80003]
2cy+ September. A slightly untypical adult tail where the RR seem unusually narrow. But, besides being in pretty good condition, the very tips are slightly more blunt than in most 1cy birds. [1ET28684]
1cy September, showing tertials of rather typical juvenile quality (less dense, less glossy and slightly more worn). [1ET28704]
1cy September, showing variation in the pattern and structure of juvenile tertials. [1ET29001]
2cy+ September. Post-breeding tertials are generally slightly more fresh, dense and more glossy compared to juvenile ones. [1ET28684]
2cy+ August, showing variation of the adult pattern and structure. [1ET81750]
More Anthus trivialis:
Ageing spring

Moult
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