Erithacus rubecula - spring

European Robin / Rödhake

AGE - BEST CRITERIA:
 
Autumn criterias are still applicable, though 2cy are more affected to wear during the winter than adult. In 2cy, moult contrast is present in GC, most often in the central part of the arm. Adult birds show a uniform plumage lacking moult contrasts.
 
2cy: 
  • Most birds included 3-6 inner GC in the post-juvenile moult. Juvenile outer GC show a slightly more rusty hue on the outer vane and generally rather wide pale rusty-buff tips (but may be rather heavily worn). Inner moulted post-juvenile feathers are slightly more olive green in the outer vane. Many inividuals show no pale tips at all in the post-juvenile GC, but some do: such pale tips are generally smaller, narrower, more distinct and often have a darker rusty colour than in the juvenile GC. Difference in wear between juvenile and post-juvenile GC in autumn is not always obvious in this species, but the structure of the post-juvenile GC are generally slightly more dense.
  • Juvenile RR are generally more worn, narrow and more pointed, but difficult birds are sometimes seen. The structure is often helpful, with the juvenile feathers being slightly less dense, less glossy and somewhat paler brownish.
  • The inside of the upper mandible is variable, but generally slightly paler than in 3cy+ birds, especially along the edges.
  • Juvenile PC are often slightly less dense and more loose/frayed than in adult, but difference is not always obvious. 
  • A moult contrast is sometimes seen in the CC/alula area, where CC and inner alula may be moulted post-juvenile.
 
3cy+:
  • Whole plumage slightly more fresh than 2cy, lacking moult contrasts.
  • GC are uniformly olive with no pale tips, or with pale tips that are smaller, narrower, more distinct and often have a darker rusty colour than in the juvenile GC.
  • RR are generally slightly broader, more blunt tipped and often in better condition.
  • The inside of the upper mandible is rather variable, but generally slightly darker than in 2cy birds, especially along the edges.
  • PC are generally slightly more fresh, dense and slightly more olive.
2cy March. The outermost GC1-6 are unmoulted juvenile, with a slight rusty hue in the outer vane and rather large buff tip, contrasting to post-juvenile inner GC7-10 which are slightly olive tinged and lacking pale tips. Note that pale tips may also be present in post-juvenile or post-breeding GC, but these are generally smaller, narrower and often have a darker rusty colour than in the juvenile GC. Note also that juvenile GC may lack the pale tips due to wear, often leaving a small worn gap in the feather. [CP42517]
2cy March. Another 2cy showing unmoulted juvenile GC1-6 in contrast to post-juvenile LC, MC and GC7-10. [CT49204]
3cy+ March. Worn adult wing showing uniformly olive and rather dense GC and lack of any moult contrasts. [CT49175]
3cy+ April. Unifom and rather olive wing, lacking any moult contrast. [CT50068]
2cy March. Juvenile RR are generally slightly more worn, narrow and more pointed than in adult. [CT49204]
2cy May, showing variation. [VF68452]
3cy+ April. Adult RR are generally slightly broader, more blunt tipped and often in better condition. [CP44080]
3cy+ April, showing variation in shape and wear of the RR. [CN92278]
2cy May. The inside of the upper mandible is rather variable, but generally paler than in 2cy+ birds, especially along the edges. [11909973]
3cy+ March. The inside of the upper mandible is generally darker than in 1cy birds, especially along the edges. [CT49175]
2cy March. Juvenile PC and alula often show slightly more worn/loose/frayed tips than in adult, and are generally somewhat less dense. [CT49204]
2cy April, showing variation. [CP42743]
3cy+ March. Adult PC and alula are generally more dense and in better condition (but the difference is not always obvious). [CT49175]
3cy+ March. Another individual showing some variation. [CT49216]
More Erithacus rubecula:
Ageing autumn

Moult
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