Abbreviations & references


CC: Carpal covert
GC: Greater covert(s)
LC: Lesser covert(s)
MC: Median covert(s)

P / PP: Primary / Primaries
PC: Primary covert(s)
R / RR: Rectrix / Rectrices
S / SS: Secondary / Secondaries
SC: Complete summer moult
sp: Partial summer moult
WC: Complete winter moult
wp: Partial winter moult
*: An * is used in the moult key to mark that 
deviations from the normal moult patterns are regularly seen (such deviations are always discussed in the text below the moult key). 

Andersson, R. 2013. Dispersal of yearlings and autumn migration of Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros in southern Sweden. Ornis Svecica 23:65-71.

Andersson, S., Bengtsson, D., Hellström, M. & Waldenström, J. 2016. Age and sex determination of mallards in autumn. Ornis Svecica, in press.

Baker, K. 1993. Identification guide to European non-passerines. BTO Guide no. 24. BTO. Thetford.

Bayley, S. & Boothby, C. (2015) Sexing juvenile Siskins Spinus spinus in southeast England, Ringing & Migration, 30:1, 55-56, DOI: 10.1080/03078698.2015.1059607

Cramp, S. (ed.). 1985. The birds of the western Palearctic. Vol 4. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Cramp, S. (ed.). 1992. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 6. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Cramp, S. and Perrins, C. M. (eds.). 1993. The birds of the western Palearctic. Vol 7. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jenni, L. & Winkler, R. 1994. Moult and Ageing of European Passerines. Academic Press Limited. London. 

Karlsson, L., Persson, K. & Walinder, G. 1985. Photographic documentation of age and sex differences in birds - aims, methods and example of resuts. Vår fågelvärld, 44:465-478.

Kennerly, P. & Pearson, D. 2010. Reed and Bush Warblers. Christopher Helm, London.

Mariné, R. & Copete, J.L. 1994. Sexing juvenile Siskins Carduelis spinus. Butlletí del Grup Catalá d’Anellament. 11:7-9.

Menzie, S. & Malmhagen, B. 2013. Ageing Dunnocks Prunella modularis using plumage characteristics. Ringing & Migration, 28:1, 57-62, DOI: 10.1080/03078698.2013.811166.

Mild, K. 1994. Field identification of Pied, Collared and Semi-collared Flycatchers. Birding World 7:139-151, 231-240 & 325-334.

Senar, J., C. 1988. Delayed moult in the Siskin Carduelis spinusRinging & Migration, 9:2, 91-92, DOI: 10.1080/03078698.1988.9673930.
Svensson, L. 1992. Identification Guide to European Passerines. Fourth edition. Privately published, Stockholm.

Waldenström, J. & Ottoson, U. 2000. 
The accuracy of field sex-determination in the Common Whitethroat Sylvia c. communisOrnis Svecica. 10, 67-–70. 

Walinder, G., Karlsson, L. & Persson, K. 1988. A new method for separating Marsh Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris) from Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus). Ringing & Migration. 9:55–62.
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